Published as Libraries & the Cultural Record prior to volume 47


Through a review of studies of open science and open behaviors (data sharing, open access publishing, open source software development) and editorial writing that promotes open science, we identify two themes prominent in the advocacy of open science: normative (Mertonian) scientific values and the importance of open systems. We report examples of these themes and suggest that open science advocates understand the movement as a value-driven ethos pursuing improved science through the use of technology. We contend that a belief in the open ethos is distinct from participation in open behaviors and that, consequently, open systems are used by two ideologically distinct user groups. We conclude by discussing the implications of this characterization of open science, focusing on the consequences of different user groups using the same technological systems.